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Pre-Technical Foundation Skills

#### Basic Industrial Math

Course #: Block X21
Duration: 30 hours
What Students Learn: This module of six study units offers the trainee arithmetic and basic mathematics, metric measurement, and calculator fundamentals. The Metric System is an introductory unit which includes metric conversions. Problem exercises and examples in this module are presented in on-the-job scenarios with applications drawn from the industrial context.
Components: Addition and Subtraction (186008); Multiplication and Division (186009); Fractions, Percents, Proportions, and Angles (186010); Metric System (186011); Formulas (186012); Introduction to Algebra (186013);
Special Notes: This updated course replaces lessons contained within Practical Math and Measurements, Block X01. Each study unit contains a progress examination.

Course #: 186008
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Define the terms: whole number, numeral, digit, decimal, place value, addend, sum, minuend, subtrahend, and difference.
• Explain the significance of the digit zero in a number.
• Differentiate between concrete and abstract numbers.
• Properly prepare numbers for addition and subtraction.
• Perform addition and subtraction on numbers.
• How to use a calculator to add and subtract numbers.

#### Multiplication and Division

Course #: 186009
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Define the terms: factor, multiplicand, multiplier, partial product, dividend, divisor, quotient, and remainder.
• Recognize the various signs used for multiplication and division.
• Properly prepare numbers for multiplication and division.
• Perform multiplication and division on whole numbers and decimals.
• How to check your answers to both multiplication and division problems.
• How to find the average of a group of numbers.
• How to use a calculator to multiply and divide numbers.

• #### Fractions, Percents, Proportions, and Angles

Course #: 186010
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Define the terms: fraction, proper fraction, improper fraction, lowest common denominator, percent, ratio, and proportion.
• How to add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions and decimals.
• How to change fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
• Solve problems involving percent.
• How to use a protractor to measure angles.
• Lay out templates for checking angles.
• How to use a calculator to solve percent problems and to convert fractions to decimals.

• #### Metric System

Course #: 186011
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Name the base units most commonly used in the metric system.
• Identify metric prefixes and their values.
• Apply conversion factors to increase or decrease metric base units.
• Estimate lengths in metric units.
• Express temperature in degrees Celsius.
• Define the terms: mass, density, force, torque, and pressure. Identify the metric units used to measure each one.
• How to use a calculator to convert one metric unit to another.

• #### Formulas

Course #: 186012
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Explain the use of letters in formulas.
• Prepare and use formulas to solve problems.
• The use of formulas to calculate the perimeter of a triangle and rectangle, distance, area of a triangle, rectangle, and circle, volume of a pyramid, current in a circuit, and volume of a sphere.
• How to use a calculator to find square root and solve formulas.
• Transform and solve an equation.
• Perform basic arithmetic operations with signed terms.
• Substitute given numerical values for letters in a formula and find the unknown quantity.

Special Notes: This updated course replaces 2468.

• #### Introduction to Algebra

Course #: 186013
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Define the terms: term, constant, coefficient, exponent, monomial, trinomial, and polynomial.
• Identify and combine like terms in an expression.
• Multiply and divide terms containing exponents.
• Remove parentheses from an expression and simplify the expression.
• Perform basic arithmetic operations with signed terms.

• #### Practical Measurements

Course #: Block X22
Duration: 25 hours
What Students Learn: The five lessons in this block present the trainee with a broad overview of measurements found in an industrial setting. In addition to the basic measurements of length, temperature, energy, force, and power, the trainee will learn how materials are measured and handled in bulk quantities. Fluid measurements include the measuring of fluid flow, fluid pressure, and fluid level. All lessons include the metric conversions in addition to the English units.
Components: Temperature Measurement (186023); Linear and Distance Measurement (186021); Bulk Measurement (186022); Energy, Force, and Power (186024); Fluid Measurement (186025);
Special Notes: This updated course replaces the X0105 to X0109 lessons found in Practical Math and Measurements, Block X01. Each study unit contains a progress examination.

#### Linear and Distance Measurement

Course #: 186021
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Recognize the difference between English and metric units of length.
• Find the perimeter of rectangular, square, or triangular areas or objects, such as rooms or machine bases, after measuring the sides.
• Calculate the circumference of circular objects like pipes of tanks after measuring the diameter.
• Measure lengths with the aid of rigid and flexible rules, thickness gauges and screw pitch gauges.
• Read a typical vernier scale and micrometer to take precise measurements.

• #### Bulk Measurement

Course #: 186022
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Measure an angle by degrees.
• Find the areas of rectangles, triangles, and circles.
• Find the volumes of prisms, cylinders, and cones.
• Find the weight of material stored in a container.
• Determine the amount of material that can be stored or handled.
• Discuss the types and uses of conveyors and weighing systems.

• #### Temperature Measurement

Course #: 186023
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Change temperature units from one system to another.
• Discuss the use of the various types of thermometers.
• Select the type of thermometer to be used at certain temperatures.

• #### Energy, Force, and Power

Course #: 186024
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Distinguish between the concepts of energy, force, and power.
• Explain what the term "work" means, and how it is measured.
• Know by sight the basic machines, lever, inclined plane, wedge, wheel and axle, and screw.
• Solve simple problems that involve levers, mechanical advantage, and machine efficiency.
• List the forms of energy that have important industrial applications, and the instruments used for measuring energy.

• #### Fluid Measurement

Course #: 186025
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Understand the properties of fluids.
• Determine the density, specific gravity, and viscosity of fluids.
• Express pressure in three different units.
• Measure the pressure of fluids using manometers and Bourdon tubs pressure gages.
• Measure the flow rate of fluids using different types of flowmeters.

• #### Introduction to Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry

Course #: Block X02
Duration: 72 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn: This twelve lesson block is for those trainees requiring more advanced math subjects. The subject of algebra is covered in detail and the subjects of geometry and trigonometry are introduced in a practical manner.
Because math skills vary widely, a placement test is available to determine the trainee's specific knowledge of the various areas. Test X0250: Introduction to Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry is divided into four sections: lessons X0201 through X0204; lessons X0205 through X0208; lessons X0209 through X0210; and lessons X0211 and X0212.
Components: Algebra: Monomials and Polynomials (X0201); Algebra: Factoring (X0202); Algebra: Addition and Subtraction of Fractions (X0203); Algebra: Multiplication and Division of Fractions (X0204); Algebra: Linear Equations (X0205); Algebra: Simultaneous Linear Equations (X0206); Algebra: Determinants (X0207); Algebra: Quadratic Equations (X0208); Algebra: Exponents (X0209); Algebra: Radicals and Imaginary Numbers (X0210); Applied Geometry (X0211); Practical Trigonometry (X0212); Progress Examination Booklet (X0220); Progress Examination (X0221); Progress Examination (X0222); Progress Examination (X0223); Progress Examination (X0224); Placement Test: Introduction to Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry (X0250);

#### Algebra: Monomials and Polynomials

Course #: X0201
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Remove grouping symbols from algebraic expressions, dividing by a monomial when indicated.
• Multiply binomials by monomials, trinomials, and other inomials.
• Calculate the square root and the third power of given monomials.
• Find special products involving binomials.
• Divide one polynomial by another polynomial of lower degree.

• #### Algebra: Factoring

Course #: X0202
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Find the prime factors of certain binomials and trinomials.
• Factor a given trinomial.
• Use the Factor Theorem to factor a given polynomial.
• Use factoring to find the roots of an equation.
• Divide one polynomial by another polynomial of lower degree.
• Find the lowest common multiple of several polynomials.

• #### Algebra: Addition and Subtraction of Fractions

Course #: X0203
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Recognize equivalent algebraic fractions.
• Perform additions and subtractions involving algebraic fractions.
• Reduce an algebraic fraction to its lowest terms.
• Find the least common denominator for a group of algebraic fractions.

• #### Algebra: Multiplication and Division of Fractions

Course #: X0204
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Perform multiplications and divisions involving algebraic fractions.
• Reduce an algebraic fraction to its lowest terms.
• Find the least common denominator for a group of algebraic fractions.
• Solve equations involving fractions or decimals.
• Simplify complex fractions.

• #### Algebra: Linear Equations

Course #: X0205
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Recognize equations expressing mixture problems and other word problems.
• Solve number problems, digit problems, and age problems.
• Recognize the graph of a linear equation, given the graph or a set of points.

• #### Algebra: Simultaneous Linear Equations

Course #: X0206
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Recognize essential steps in the solving of simultaneous linear equations by addition, subtraction, comparison, graphing, and clearing of fractions.
• Identify the classification of a system of equations.
• Solve a system of linear equations.
• Solve interest problems, lever problems, and work-sharing problems.

• #### Algebra: Determinants

Course #: X0207
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Evaluate a second-order determinant and expand a third-order determinant.
• Recognize the standard form to be used in solving simultaneous equations by determinants.
• Recognize determinants that represent the solutions of simultaneous equations in two or three unknowns.

Course #: X0208
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Recognize the graphical solution of two equations.
• Solve and recognize steps in the solution of systems of quadratic equations and systems of a quadratic and linear equation.
• Solve a fourth-degree polynomial equation in quadratic form.
• Use the quadratic formula to solve a quadratic equation, calculate the discriminant of a quadratic equation, and point out what can be known from a given discriminant.
• Write a quadratic equation which has given roots.
• Solve word problems involving quadratic equations.

• #### Algebra: Exponents

Course #: X0209
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Demonstrate an understanding of the meaning of a fractional exponent.
• Apply the rules for positive and negative exponents in multiplication, division, and raising to powers.
• Use radicals to convert fractional exponents and use fractional exponents to convert radicals.
• Write a given number in standard form.

• #### Algebra: Radicals and Imaginary Numbers

Course #: X0210
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Rationalize the denominator of a fraction and eliminate an imaginary number from the denominator of a fraction.
• Solve an equation containing several square roots.
• Multiply, divide, and raise to powers terms containing radicals.

• #### Applied Geometry

Course #: X0211
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Recognize characteristics of angles and closed plane figures.
• Distinguish between common geometric solids.
• Apply the Pythagorean theorem.
• Calculate perimeters and areas of a polygon, circle, and ellipse.
• Apply the formula for area and volume of geometric solids.

• #### Practical Trigonometry

Course #: X0212
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Define trigonometric functions.
• Use trigonometric tables and apply interpolation.
• Solve right triangles.
• Apply the laws of sines and cosines in solving oblique triangles.

• #### Logarithms

Course #: 5254
Duration: 10 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn: Table of Common Logarithms; Table of Useful Numbers; Exponents; Logarithms of Numbers; Determination of Characteristics of a Logarithm; Determination of Mantissa of a Logarithm; Proportional Parts; Determination of Antilogarithms; Multiplication by Use of Logarithms; Division by Use of Logarithms; Finding Powers and Roots by Logarithms; Cologarithms; Hyperbolic Logarithms.

#### Working Safely with Electricity

Course #: 4400
Duration: 10 hours
What Students Learn: Electrician Categories and Classifications; Electrical Safety Standards and Codes, including OSHA, NEC, and NESC; Materials Standards; Listing and Labeling by Testing Laboratories; Electric Shock; Safety Precautions; First Aid for Electric Shock; Protective Clothing.

#### Working Safely with Electricity

Course #: VB06XX
Duration: 1.12 hours
What Students Learn: Electricity is unforgiving! It is important that every student, trainee and mechanic know the dangers and precautions before they step onto the shop floor. This most important program contains the vital information employees working with electricity should know before they get started. Dramatic interviews with survivors of electrical accidents, combined with a crisp pace and vivid images, will keep students glued to their seats.
Components: The Shock Emergency (VB0602); Emergency Response (VB0604); Electricity Can Kill (VB0601); The Importance of Grounding (VB0603);
Special Notes: This video series is available in a Spanish version.

#### Quality Concepts: Tools and Applications

Course #: 186036
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Describe how job roles change as a company evolves in its quality consciousness.
• Explain several ways in which you can support TQM.
• Identify approaches, practices and skills associated with positive organizational change.
• Differentiate between the "change process" at the company level and the manufacturing processes that require improvement.
• Describe major causes of process variation and give examples of how they may affect you in your job.
• Explain why and how the reduction of variability is a key factor in process improvement.
• Describe why and how quality and process improvement depend on data-driven decision making.
• Identify seven quality tools and explain their uses.

• #### Preventive Maintenance

Course #: 286085
Duration: 5 hours
Course Prerequisites: Trades Safety: Getting Started (186001); Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn: Preview
The purpose of a preventive maintenance program is to locate possible machine or equipment faults before the machine fails.

Objectives
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

• Describe the function of inspection and scheduled maintenance as the basis of preventive maintenance.
• Explain why preventive maintenance is performed and how it's scheduled.
• Identify those within industry who should be part of preventive maintenance planning and execution.
• Discuss the causes, effects, and goals of a successful preventive maintenance program.
• Explain how a computerized preventive maintenance program can be developed and implemented.

Contents
Introduction To Preventive Maintenance; Why Perform Preventive Maintenance?; Scheduling Preventive Maintenance; PM Program Personnel; PM Program Goals; Computerized PM Programs.

• #### Preventive Maintenance Techniques

Course #: 286086
Duration: 5 hours
Course Prerequisites: Trades Safety: Getting Started (186001); Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn: Preview
How to implement a preventive maintenance (PM) program is just as important as the why and when of such a program. It doesn't pay to create a well thought out and scheduled PM program only to have the lubrication, inspection, or repair tasks performed improperly. The objective of this unit is to show you how to perform these tasks safely and properly. This will include showing you typical PM tasks as they are performed on common industrial equipment.

Objectives
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

• Explain how to inspect and properly maintain a belt, chain, and gearbox power transmission system.
• Discuss why proper alignment is necessary when operating a power transmission system.
• List the steps needed to properly maintain an AC or DC motor.
• Explain how to perform a start-up or bump test of a motor.
• Describe how to perform PM tasks on pneumatic systems.
• Describe how to maintain both floor and elevated conveyor systems.
• Identify the types of elevators and vertical lifts in your plant and the proper PM procedures for this equipment.
• Explain how to maintain liquid and vacuum pump systems.
• Describe how to perform a basic alignment of in-line shafts.
• List the proper PM procedures for electronic controllers and robot systems.

Contents
PM Of Power Transmission Systems; PM Of Electric Motors And Controllers; PM Of Pneumatic Systems; PM Of Conveyors; PM Of Vertical Lifts; PM Of Vacuum And Fluid Pumps; PM Of Electronic Controllers; PM Of Robots.

• #### Predictive Maintenance

Course #: 286087
Duration: 5 hours
Course Prerequisites: Trades Safety: Getting Started (186001); Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn: Preview
Predictive technologies measure one or more characteristics of machine operation, calculate the expected life of the monitored system, and then estimate the condition of equipment and, therefore, the need for maintenance on that equipment. With this information passed along to a good preventive maintenance program, the preventive maintenance team can make informed decisions on task scheduling and make the most of its maintenance and inspection tasks.

Vibration analysis programs are the most commonly conducted PDM efforts. By performing inspection and repairs during downtime, uptime failures of the analyzed components are all but eliminated. PDM is more than vibration analysis, however; multiple technologies, such as infrared thermography, balance, alignment, and electrical signature analysis are part of many PDM programs. Because of these technologies, plants run better and are more competitive. PDM allows maintenance departments to predict when a unit will fail and plan its maintenance during a scheduled downtime, usually when the unit is cooler, cleaner, and not needed for the manufacturing process.

Objectives
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

• Define what PDM is and how it can be used in industry.
• Identify the various types of technologies used in PDM.
• Explain what goals should be considered for a new and a maturing PDM program.
• Discuss the scope of basic mechanical PDM.
• Explain how a time waveform and a frequency spectrum can be used to identify machine faults.

Contents
What Is Predictive Maintenance?; Predictive Maintenance Program Goals; Basic Mechanical Predictive Maintenance; Forms Of PDM Data.

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