> > > Introduction to Electrical Maintenance Courses


Introduction to Electrical Maintenance

DC Principles

Course #: Block A21
Duration: 30 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21);
What Students Learn: In this block consisting of six study units, the trainee will learn the basics of electrical theory. These units introduce electrical terms, symbols, and the operation of simple circuits. Ohm's law receives extensive coverage including practical troubleshooting examples used to industry. A new unit specific to capacitors and inductors provides more in-depth coverage. Up-to-date information on conductors, insulation, and specialty batteries forms a revised study unit. Study units covering magnetism, electromagnetism, motors, and generators are included with industry related examples.
Components: Nature of Electricity (086001); Circuit Analysis and Ohm's Law (086002); Capacitors and Inductors (086003); Magnetism and Electromagnetism (086004); Conductors, Insulators, and Batteries (086005); DC Motors and Generator Theory (086006);
Special Notes: This updated course replaces DC Principles, Block A01. Each study unit contains a progress examination.

AC Principles

Course #: Block A22
Duration: 40 hours
Course Prerequisites: DC Principles (Block A21); Basic Industrial Math (Block X21);
What Students Learn: Alternating current is the form of current most often used to furnish electrical energy. Students receive a complete introduction to AC terminology and basic AC circuit configurations. Individual study units on the uses of capacitors and inductors in AC circuits underlines the importance of these components in AC theory. The generation, control, and distribution of AC power are highlighted in study units on alternators, transformers, and energy distribution. How electricity is generated at a power plant and sent to consumers is covered. The student will also be introduced to basic electronics through a study unit on rectification and basic electronic components.
Components: Alternating Current (086007); Alternating Current Circuits (086008); Inductors in AC Circuits (086009); Capacitors in AC Circuits (086010); Transformers (086011); Alternators (086012); Electrical Energy Distribution (086013); Rectification and Basic Electronic Devices (086014);
Special Notes: This updated course replaces AC Principles and Components, Block A02. Each study unit contains a progress examination.

Electronics Workbench Lab Manual for AC Principles (Block A22)

Course #: 387012C
Duration: 10 hours
Course Prerequisites: Electronics Workbench. (086800); DC Principles (Block A21); AC Principles (Block A22);
What Students Learn: This lab manual, designed for use with the Electronics Workbench simulation software (Versions 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0), contains lab exercises and troubleshooting problems that reinforce the theory learned in AC Principles. Problems dealing with impedances of RC and RL circuits, rectification of AC voltages, and series and parallel resonant circuits are part of the learning experience.
The manual contains the basic operational instructions for the Workbench software and Windows.

Special Notes: The manual contains a file disk of practice circuits.

Analog Circuit Measurement

Course #: Block A23
Duration: 15 hours
Course Prerequisites: AC Principles (Block A22); Basic Industrial Math (Block X21);
What Students Learn: In this three unit block, trainees learn how to use electrical test instruments and measuring techniques. The instruments covered are multimeters, volt-ohm-milliameters (VOMs) and oscilloscopes. Students will learn how to measure voltage, resistance, and current valves is a circuit. Troubleshooting tests on both AC and DC systems including PLC input and output problems are emphasized.
Components: Basic Test Equipment (086025); Troubleshooting with Volt-Ohm-Milliamp Meters (VOMs) (086026); Using Basic Oscilloscopes (086027);
Special Notes: This updated course replaces Electrical Measurements and Instruments, Block A03. Each study unit contains a progress examination.

Electronics Workbench Lab Manual: Experiments in Electrical Measurements (Block A23)

Course #: 387014C
Duration: 10 hours
Course Prerequisites: Electronics Workbench. (086800); Analog Circuit Measurement (Block A23);
What Students Learn: Students will complete lab exercises and troubleshooting problems using the Electronics Workbench software (Versions 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0). This lab manual will provide experience using the many simulated instruments that are part of the software package. Troubleshooting simulations using the digital multimeter, oscilloscope, function generator, and bode plotter are included in these exercises. The manual includes the basic operational instructions for the Workbench software and Windows.

Special Notes: The manual contains a file disk of practice circuits.

Electrical Safety for the Trades

Course #: 186005
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
This study unit will introduce students to many workplace situations that require you to work safely with electricity. You will learn how and why electricity can be dangerous. Trainees will also learn about various methods used for protection. Safety begins with the careful installation of electrical components by means of approved wiring methods. You should use safety procedures and practices that insulate you from electricity's power anytime you work with, or near, electrical equipment and components.
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

  • Explain how electricity can harm you and your property.
  • Discuss the importance of properly using quality electrical components.
  • Follow the basic methods of protection when wiring electrical installations.
  • Tell why it is important to ground electrical equipment and systems.
  • Select the type of electrical equipment to use in a hazardous location.
  • List the safety practices required in an electrical work area.
  • Talk about the importance of a clear working space around electrical equipment.
  • Educate your own level of safety training to be sure it matches the electrical work you are performing.

  • Contents
    Introduction to Electrical Safety; Using Proper Materials and Components; Equipment Grounding; Hazardous Locations; Safe Working Clearances; Safety Practices.

Electrical Equipment

Course #: Block A24
Duration: 60 hours
What Students Learn: The twelve study units in this block provide the student with the skills and knowledge needed to install basic industrial electrical equipment. In addition to learning the symbols for the various types of equipment, the student will learn how to safely install conductors and electrical fittings. The types of equipment discussed includes outlet boxes, panels, raceways, conduits, switches, fuses, circuit breakers, plugs, receptacles, and lampholders. The student will also learn how to calculate electrical loads, lay out circuits, and troubleshoot control circuits.
Components: Conductors and Insulators in Industry (086070); Working with Conduit (086071); Electrical Boxes (086072); Industrial Enclosures and Raceways (086073); Connecting Electrical Equipment, Part 1 (086074); Connecting Electrical Equipment, Part 2 (086075); Industrial Fuses (086076); Industrial Circuit Breakers (086077); Plugs, Receptacles, and Lampholders (086078); Industrial Switches (086079); Industrial Relay Ladder Logic (086080); Industrial Relays, Contractors, and Solenoids (086081);
Special Notes: This updated course replaces Electrical Equipment, Block A04. Each study unit contains a progress exam.

Conductors and Insulators in Industry

Course #: 086070
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
As an industrial electrician, students will work with various types of conductors and insulators. For instance, you may install a new service and have to pull conductors through conduit. Electricians will have to select the right size, type, and color of conductor to properly perform the installation. In another instance, you may troubleshoot a problem with an industrial circuit and find a faulty conductor. Your knowledge of the types of conductors and insulators can help you perform this task quickly and efficiently.
This study unit provides electricians with information on conductors and insulators that you will find in industry. This study unit covers a range of conductors from the standard plastic coated, copper conductors to the large, high-temperature conductors. Students will learn about the different types of insulators and how the type of insulator can influence the maximum temperature and current-carrying capability of the conductor. At the end of this study unit, students will learn how to troubleshoot and repair conductor and insulator problems.
When students complete this study unit, he and she will be able to

  • Identify the physical properties of various conductors.
  • Describe the electrical properties of common conductor materials.
  • Explain why conductors contain resistance, which causes voltage drops.
  • Identify the common types of insulation materials that are used on industrial conductors.
  • Explain how to repair faulty insulation on industrial conductors.
  • Describe how to troubleshoot and repair conductor and insulation problems.

  • Contents
    Physical Properties and Characteristics: Conductor Terminology; Wire Sizes; Wire Tables; Mil-Foot and the Effect of Temperature; Electrical Properties and Characteristics: Conductivity; Wire Resistance; Voltage Drop; Types of Industrial Insulation: The Definition of an Insulator; Natural Insulators; Synthetic Insulators; High-Temperature Insulators; Shrink Tubing; Tapes; Other Forms of Insulators; Problems with Conductors and Insulators: Effects of Too Much Current or Heat; Effects of Abrasion; Effects of Poor Conductor and Insulator Installation ;Effects of Aging on Conductors.

Working with Conduit

Course #: 086071
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
This study unit focuses on what an electrician needs to know about conduit. First, you will study the characteristics of common types of conduit. Next, students will learn how to work with conduit. The course covers the types of fittings, conduit cutting and threading, and supporting conduit from walls and ceilings. When installing conduit, an electrician frequently has to make bends in the conduit. These bends must be made properly, using the right tools and techniques described in this study unit. Finally, you will study examples of large conduit installations and how to size and pull conductors through conduit.
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

  • Define the characteristics of different types of conduit.
  • Describe how to install various types of conduit fittings and support.
  • Explain how to properly cut and thread conduit using manual and machine methods.
  • Identify and use the proper tools for bending conduit.
  • List the equipment used in installing large conduit and its conductors.
  • Determine conduit sizing when given a particular wiring assignment.

  • Contents
    Conduit Types and Characteristics: Rigid Metal Conduit Systems; Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT);Intermediate Metallic Conduit (IMC);Flexible Metal Conduit; Other Types of Conduit; Conduit Procedures: EMT Conduit Fittings; Rigid and IMT Fittings; Cutting, Reaming, and Threading Conduit; Bonding Conduit; Supporting Conduit; Conduit Nipples and Elbows; Using Insulating Bushings; Bending Conduit: The Right Way ;Manually Operated Benders; Hydraulic Benders ;Radius of the Bend; Bending for a Given Rise; Back-to-Back Bends; Re-bending; Offsets; Saddle Bends; Conduit Run Requirements; Large Conduit Installations: Where Large Conduit Installations are Performed; Conduit Hangers; Using Pull Boxes; Installing Large Conduit Systems; Mating Conductors and Conduit: Derating for More Than Three Conductors; Basic Conductor Ampacity; Derating for More than Three Conductors; Derating for Ambient Temperature; Conductor cross sectional Area; Conductor Fill; Selection of Conduit Size; Combinations of Wire Sizes in Conduit; Fishing Wire through Conduit; Feeding Conductors into Conduit.

Electrical Boxes

Course #: 086072
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
This study unit teaches electricians about a very important part of any electrical distribution or control cable wiring system. This important part is the electrical box. The electrical box may be a small component, such as a box for a light switch or receptacle. Or, the box may be a large junction box with many conductors entering and leaving the box.
This study unit provides you with information on the types of electrical boxes their covers, and discusses boxes for pulling and splicing. Students will learn how to select the proper sized box for a situation. You will also learn about the proper ways of installing electrical boxes.
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

  • Describe the role of electrical boxes in an installation.
  • Explain why circuits are interrupted.
  • Explain when and where electrical boxes are used in installations.
  • Describe how to properly install electrical boxes.
  • Identify the types of electrical pulling and splicing boxes.
  • Explain how to properly install conductors in a system with electrical boxes.

  • Contents
    Equipment Defined: When Wiring is Interrupted; Material Standards; Common Wiring Terms; Wiring Symbols; The Parts of an Electrical System; Electrical Boxes and Covers: Outlet Boxes; Where Outlet Boxes are Used; Boxes and Their Associated Fittings; Types of Outlet Boxes; Non-Metallic Outlet Boxes; Outlet Box Knockouts; Brackets; Fittings for Outlet Boxes; Flush Plates and Covers; Industrial Electrical Boxes; Boxes used for Pulling and Splicing: Junction Boxes; Special Boxes; Conduit Bodies; Straight Pull Boxes; Right-Angle Pull Boxes; Knockouts and Circuit Grounding; Installing an Outlet Box: The Volume of the Box; Locating an Outlet Box; Mounting an Outlet Box; Lighting Fixtures and Exhaust Fans; Cleaning an Outlet Box; Wiring an Outlet Box.

Industrial Enclosures and Raceways

Course #: 086073
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
Whenever a person walks through an industrial plant, you will notice many large electrical enclosures that serve as control cabinets. These enclosures house panelboards to which many control components, protection devices, recorders, and other equipment, connect. As an industrial electrician, it is important for students to know how industrial enclosures and the panelboards they contain are constructed, secured, and connected to the devices throughout the plant.
This study unit provides electricians with the information you will need to construct and install an industrial enclosure, and to connect the panelboard to the field devices through one or more kinds of raceways. Many different types of installations are encountered in industry, and you will be introduced to several of them. Students will also learn about raceway installation and grounding.
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

  • Describe the basic construction of industrial control cabinets and similar enclosures.
  • Explain how to connect conduit to enclosures.
  • List the proper procedures for installing a disconnect switch or main breaker in an enclosure and the procedures for connecting conductors to the switch.
  • Explain how to properly ground the enclosure.
  • Describe how to properly install wireways, such as wiring troughs.
  • Explain how plugs and receptacles can be used to prefabricate a system.

  • Contents
    Industrial Enclosures: Basic Enclosures; Types of Enclosures; Enclosures with Disconnects; Large Control Enclosures; Installing the Disconnect Switches: Installing the Door Handle Hardware; Installing the Rods and Rollers; Installing the Disconnect Switch Assembly ;Connecting the Wiring to the Switch and Panel; Industrial Control Panelboard Layout: General Locations; DIN Rail; Locating Terminal Blocks; Wiring the Control Panel; Connecting Conduit to Enclosures: Layout; Creating Holes in Enclosures; Using Manual Hole Punches; Using Hydraulic Hole Punches; Installing Conduit Fittings; Using Insulating Bushings; Installing Raceways: NEC rules for Metal Wireways; Raceway Cutouts; Supporting Metal Wireway or Trough; Raceway to Machine Connections; Grounding Wireways and Troughs.

Connecting Electrical Equipment, Part 1

Course #: 086074
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
Industrial systems are complex systems having many interconnections. All components work together to keep the system functioning properly. Every component must communicate with a main control panelboard or a main system controller, which, in turn, communicates with the other components of the system. Even a remote device like a single photoeye located on a distant conveyor plays an important role in a systems operation. That photoeye may communicate with the conveyor system controller and possibly the main assembly line controller.
This study unit provides trainees with information on how intermediate or main junction boxes are connected to the main system by means of raceway. Then, you will learn how devices are connected into a wireway, to a junction box, or to another location, using raceway or cabling and strain relief fittings. The next section discusses how connections are made inside control-panelboard enclosures. Students will be introduced to terminal block connections. You will also learn about connections to devices such as fuse holders, circuit breakers, and motor starters. The final section of this study unit covers connections to remote operator stations and remote control stations.
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

  • Describe the use of flexible conduit, strain relief fittings, plug connections, and terminal blocks in industrial equipment.
  • Discuss why there are often two raceways run in parallel in an industrial system.
  • Explain when to run rigid conduit, EMT conduit, wireway, or open cords in a system.
  • Describe how to make basic connections in industrial control-panelboard enclosures.
  • Explain the different classes of remote station and operator station wiring.
  • Discuss why various types of cables and conductors must be kept separated.
  • Explain how to properly connect communications and controller cables in an industrial control cabinet.

  • Contents
    Connecting Devices to Intermediate Boxes: A General Layout; The AC Wireway; Strain Relief Connections; Larger Systems; Using Receptacles and Plugs; Using Flexible Conduit; The DC Wireway; External Devices; Connections to Terminal Blocks; Connecting Devices to Raceways: Using Rigid Conduit; Using EMT Conduit; Using Flexible Conduit; Using Strain Relief Fittings; Connections in the Control Cabinet: Terminal Block Connections; Connections to Motor Starters and Circuit Breakers; Connections to Fuses; Connecting Signal Cables for Electronic Equipment; Remote Operator Stations: Voltage Levels in Modern Remote Operator Stations; Grounding of Remote Operator Stations; Separating Signal and Control Cables; Broadband and Communication Circuits.

Connecting Electrical Equipment, Part 2

Course #: 086075
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
As an industrial electrician, you will spend a lot of time selecting electrical connectors and making electrical connections. You may perform these activities as part of a new installation or as a repair task. A good electrical connection is critical. A poorly made connection may cause a failure, which can cost thousands of dollars because of downtime in a plant, and possible injury caused by electrical shock.
In this study unit, students will learn how to make good electrical connections using the proper type of electrical connector. This study unit covers solderless terminals, wire nuts, and butt splices. You will learn about larger compression-type connectors and about connections made to smaller devices.
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

  • Describe types of solderless connectors.
  • Explain the use of hand-operated and hydraulic crimping tools to make good electrical connections.
  • Identify the proper size of wire nut or butt splice for splicing conductors.
  • Describe how to make good connections with wire nuts and butt splices.
  • Explain how to use large compression connectors, including solderless lugs and split-bolt connectors.
  • Describe the installation of wires on terminal blocks, plugs and receptacles, and push-pin style terminals.

  • Contents
    Solderless Connectors: Types of Solderless Connectors; Sizes of Solderless Connectors; Installation Tools; Installation of Solderless Terminals; Using Wire Nuts and Butt Splices: Types of Splice Systems; Butt Splices; Installing Wire Nuts; Installing Butt Splices; Compression Connectors: Installing Compression Terminals; Installing Compression Terminal Lugs; Installing Split-Bolt Connectors; Terminal Block and Plug / Receptacle Connections: Terminal Block Connections; Plate-Type Electrical Connections; Plug and Receptacle Pins; Push-Pin Connections.

Industrial Fuses

Course #: 086076
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
All electrical and electronic circuits, from the small ones in our homes to the large ones in industry, need to have circuit protection. This protection guards against too much current flowing in the circuit. Too much current in a circuit can cause serious damage. There are two different methods of protecting a circuit: fuses or circuit breakers. This study unit focuses on fuses.
First, this study unit discusses the need for overcurrent protection in modern industrial circuits. There are many reasons why the system wiring, control circuits, and load devices must be protected. Next, fuse ratings and specifications are covered. This section discusses the selection of the correct type and size of fuse in a system.
The following section focuses on typical fuse holders. There are a wide range of fuse holders, from fuses soldered onto a circuit board to those that are clamped into large disconnect switches. Many problems can occur on a fuse holder. This study unit shows how to address the problem until the fuse holder can be replaced. Finally, the unit ends with a discussion of how to safely test and replace fuses in their fuse holders.
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

  • Discuss the purpose of fuses in industrial electrical and electronic circuits.
  • Explain the numbering and lettering system for classifying a fuses shape, size, or circuit protection capabilities.
  • Identify various types of fuse holders.
  • Locate common failure points on different fuse holders.
  • Explain how to properly test and replace a fuse.
  • Describe common methods for repairing fuse holders.

  • Contents
    The Purposes of Fuses: Protecting Electrical Wiring; Protecting Circuit Devices; Protecting Control Circuits; Protecting Output Devices; Fuse Ratings and Classifications: Current and Voltage Ratings; Time and Temperature Considerations; Interrupt Current Rating; Fuse Categories and Classifications; Sizes and Shapes of Fuses; Fuse Classifications: Glass and Ceramic Fuse Types; Class RK5 Fuses ;Class RK1 Fuses; Class CC Fuses; Class L Fuses; Class J Fuses; One Time Fuses; Class G Fuses; Class T Fuses; Midget Fuses; Specialty Fuses; Using Fuse Catalogs; Fuse Holders: Holders for Small Glass and Ceramic Fuses; Larger Fuse Holders; Blade Fuse Holders; Open Fuse Installation; Changing Fuses and Maintaining Fuse Holders: Removing Power; Testing the Fuses; Checking for a Short Circuit; Checking Fuse Holder Contacts; Cleaning Fuse Holder Contacts; Maintaining Fuse Holders.

Industrial Circuit Breakers

Course #: 086077
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
As an electrician, one of the most common devices you will see is a overcurrent protection device (OCD). This may be a fuse or a circuit breaker, and every industrial cabinet will usually contain at least one OCD.
The Industrial Fuses study unit covered the various types of fuses. Here the second kind of protective device, the circuit breaker will be examined.
Most people are familiar with the molded-case circuit breakers used in our homes. The home load center will normally contain a main circuit breaker that protects the entire load center for the home, and smaller circuit breakers that protect the various branch circuits.
An industrial control panel is not much different from a home's load center. A large circuit breaker or fuse system is usually located at the main disconnect that supplies the control panel. Each circuit will then contain a smaller circuit breaker or fuse system to protect the branch circuits inside and outside the panel.
This study unit will look at the types of circuit breakers that are commonly used in industry; how they are designed and how they work. We will also look at typical branch circuits for single-phase and three-phase loads. Finally, the study unit will discuss ground fault circuit breakers and outlets, and how to safely work with circuit breakers.
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

  • Explain the thermal and magnetic operation of a circuit breaker.
  • Explain how a combination circuit breaker operates.
  • Identify an electronic circuit breaker and its operation.
  • List the various types of industrial circuit breakers.
  • Describe the various types of circuit that single-pole and multiple-pole circuit breakers will be used in.
  • Explain how to troubleshoot a circuit in which a circuit breaker has tripped.
  • Describe the operation of a ground fault circuit breaker.

  • Contents
    The Operation of a Circuit Breaker: An Automatic Switch; Thermal Circuit Breaker Operation; Magnetic Circuit Breaker Operation; Combination Circuit Breaker Operation; Circuit Breaker Accessories; Electronic Circuit Breakers; Current-Limiting Circuit Breakers; Circuit Breaker Time of Operation; Current Ratings and Interruption Current; Types of Industrial Circuit Breakers: Small Single Phase Breakers; Molded-Case Circuit Breakers; Adjustable Current and Time Delay Circuit Breakers; Air Circuit Breakers; Circuit Breaker Circuits: Protecting Single-Phase Circuits; Protecting Three-Phase Circuits; Alarm Circuit Contacts; Circuit Breaker Auxiliary Circuits; Working with Circuit Breakers: Finding A Replacement Circuit Breaker; Installing Circuit Breakers; Resetting Circuit Breakers; Checking Circuit Breakers; Causes for False Trips; Earth Leakage (Ground Fault) Circuit Interrupters: Terms used for Earth Leakage or Ground Fault Protection Devices; Tripping Current; GFCI Operation; Types of GFCIs; Testing GFCI Circuit Breakers and Outlets.

Plugs, Receptacles, and Lampholders

Course #: 086078
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
Industrial equipment is rarely connected to a control system or to other equipment using direct wiring methods. Instead the power and signal cables are often hooked to the equipment using plugs and receptacles. Trainees will find a wide variety of plugs and receptacles used in industry.
In many cases, an entire work cell or area of a plant is designed and built in a factory, separate from where the equipment will be installed. The machines will interconnect to each other and to the main control system using one of a number of plug and receptacle systems. This study unit will introduce you to those industrial plug and receptacles.
This study unit will begin with information on the common 120 VAC plug and duplex receptacle systems used in both residential and industrial locations. Next students will see the various types of plugs and receptacles used in single phase and three-phase AC power systems. Information on various types of signal plugs and receptacles that are used in industry is covered. Finally, this study unit will conclude with information on various types of lampholders.
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

  • Describe various types of convenience receptacles and their special features.
  • Explain how to properly wire a convenience receptacle.
  • Describe the operation and installation of a ground-fault circuit interrupter receptacle.
  • Identify various types of straight-blade plugs and their installation.
  • Discuss how locking receptacles and plugs are different from straight-blade devices.
  • Explain how to pick the proper locking plug and receptacle for various currents, voltages, and circuit types.
  • Discuss the use and installation of various types of industrial signal and power plugs and receptacles.
  • Describe various types of industrial lamps and lamp holders.

  • Contents
    Electrical Receptacles: Convenience Outlets Split-Wired Duplex; Receptacles Twenty-Amp Receptacles; Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) Receptacles; Special Types of Receptacles; Special Considerations When Installing Receptacles; Plugs for Straight-Blade Receptacles; Finding the Proper Plug for the Application; Industrial Locking Plugs and Receptacles: Common Single-Phase Plug and Receptacle Outlines; Three-Phase Locking Receptacles and Plugs; Installing Receptacles and Plugs; Installing Flange-Mounted Receptacles; Installing Drop Cords; Special Industrial Plugs and Receptacles: Pin-and-Sleeve Devices; Other Types of Plastic Receptacles and Plugs; Metal-Shell Plugs and Receptacles; Communications Connectors; Industrial Lampholders: Common Types of Lampholders; Fluorescent Lampholders; Lamp Bases; Special Lamp Bases and Lamp Shapes.

Industrial Switches

Course #: 086079
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
In the maze of wiring, controls, and equipment in most industrial locations, switches are among the most overlooked devices. Yet switches can cause the most problems when they do not work properly. There are many kinds of switches. When troubleshooting, some can be diagnosed simply by looking at their contacts or actuators. But many more switches consist of intricate, sometimes solid-state circuitry, and use component properties such as inductance, capacitance, and magnetism.
These types of switches are found in the basic electrical circuits and in the control rooms of industrial facilities. They also are used in the regulation of such process-line variables as flow, level, temperature, and pressure.
This study unit will introduce electricians to the many designs and technologies of industrial switches, and provide insight into their operation and applications.
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

  • Identify switch symbols on electrical drawings.
  • Have a basic understanding of the process control hierarchy.
  • Identify the various types of industrial switches.
  • Identify components of various types of industrial switches.
  • Discuss applications for various types of industrial switches.

  • Contents
    Common Switch Terms: Actuator; Arcing; Maintained Contact; Momentary Contact; Normally Closed; Normally Open; Poles and Throws; Positions; Switch Current Rating; Control-Station Switches: Operator-Controlled Panel Switches; Toggle Switches; Capacitive Finger Switches; Lighted Switches; Thumbwheel Switches; Position Sensing Switches: Inductive-Positioning; Capacitive-Positioning; Actuator-Positioning; Photoelectric Sensors and Switches; Pressure, Level, Temperature, and Flow Switches: Pressure Switches; Level Switches; Temperature Switches; Flow Switches.

Industrial Relay Ladder Logic

Course #: 086080
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
Control circuitry in industrial applications is the brain behind the brawn of motorized power. Motors require one element to perform the work they are designed to do: power. How they get the power is not a concern of the motor, but it is a major concern to the developers of control systems.
Industries, especially those involving sequential operations such as mills, refineries, chemical plants, manufacturing conveyor systems, and any of the processes that require certain events to happen at certain times, require well-designed control systems.
To properly provide sequential operation of these events, a control system designer must start with what is referred to as logic, or sequential events. A ladder diagram is the main tool used by control systems designers to design a control system that causes certain events to happen at certain times.
Once the design is developed, it is up to the electrician or technician to install the system and, later, to maintain it.
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

  • Describe the fundamentals of relay ladder logic.
  • Identify the different types of relays used in ladder logic.
  • Identify the symbols for input and output elements used in ladder logic.
  • Understand the principles such as power, current flow, rules of reading, numbering systems, and component interconnections applied in relay ladder logic.
  • Interpret simple and complex ladder logic by applying the fundamentals learned.

  • Contents
    Fundamentals of Relay Ladder Logic: Relays; Relay Applications; Motor Starters; Lighting Contactors; Control Relays; Relay Ladder Diagrams; Symbols in Relay Ladder Diagrams: Input Element Symbols of Relay Ladder Logic; Switch Symbols; Limit-Switch Symbols; Pushbutton Switch Symbols; Selector, Toggle, and Rotary Switch Symbols; Process-Switch Symbols; Foot-Switch Symbols; Relay-Contact Symbols; Supplementary Contact Symbols; Time-Delay Contact Symbols; Motor Overload Contact Symbols; Wiring and Connections; Output Element Symbols of Relay Ladder Logic; Coil, Solenoid, and Small Motor Symbols ; Meter Symbols; Pilot Lights and Alarm Symbols; Fuse and Transformer Symbols; Principles of Relay Ladder Logic: Power Supply to the Relay Ladder Logic; Logic Current Flow ; Rules of Reading Relay Ladder Logic; Numbering Systems Used in Relay Ladder Diagrams; Component Interconnections in Relay Ladder Logic; Fundamentals of Interpreting and Testing Circuit Ladder Diagrams: Interpreting Simple Ladder Diagrams; Single Start / Stop Pushbutton Control Relay with Running Lamp Circuit; Dual-Start-/ Stop Pushbutton Control Relay with Running Lamp Circuit; Motor Starter Power Schematic and Control Circuitry Ladder Diagram; Interpreting Complex Ladder Diagrams; Reversing Motor Starter Power Schematic and Control Circuitry Ladder Diagram; Ladder Logic Diagrams with Multiple Rungs and Rung Reference Numbers.

Industrial Relays, Contractors, and Solenoids

Course #: 086081
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
In the Industrial Relay Ladder Logic study unit, we learned that an electromagnetic relay is an electromechanical switch made up of an electromagnet and a set or sets of contacts.
An electromagnet is created by passing electrical current through a wire, causing a magnetic field to form around the outside of the wire. A ferrous metal, which is a metal that contains iron and can be magnetized, will be pulled toward the magnetic field being emitted by the energized coil. If the ferrous metal is shaped into a rod or plunger and is inserted in the middle of the coil, the magnetic field will pull it into the coil's core, and the rod or plunger will try to align itself in the center of the field. If the bar or plunger is mechanically connected to a contact bar, the device is a relay, starter, or contactor. If the plunger in a coil is mechanically connected to a valve or other operating mechanism, the device is a solenoid.
The magnetic field will pull the contact or mechanical device with it, and cause a movable contact to either make contact or break contact with a stationary contact (in the case of a relay), or cause a mechanical action (in the case of a solenoid).
This study unit will delve deeper into the various types of industrial control relays, magnetic starters, contactors, and solenoids, covering their operating principles, construction, components, and applications.
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

  • Distinguish between types of control relays, contactors, magnetic starters, and solenoids.
  • Describe how each type operates.
  • Identify the part of each type.
  • Identify specific applications for each type.

  • Contents
    Types of Industrial Control Relays, Magnetic Starters / Contactors, Solenoids and their Operating Principles: Control Relays; Magnetic Starters and Contactors; Solenoids; Components of Industrial Control Relays, Magnetic Starters, Contactors, and Solenoids: Control Relays; Magnetic Starters and Contactors; Solenoids; Applications of Industrial Control Relays, Magnetic Starters, Contactors, and Solenoids: Control Relays; Time-Delay on Plug-in Control Relays; Magnetic Starters and Contactors.

Electrician Training worker
View Programs
From foundational skills to advanced career training, we offer over 3,000 courses aligned with 35+ occupational pathways.
Man Auto Worker
Download Case Study
Learn how UAW-Ford filled its skills gap with Penn Foster.
Construction Workers
Download Report
Discover exclusive insights on training and development from skilled trades leaders.