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Pre-Technical Foundation Skills

#### Basic Industrial Math

Course #: Block X21
Duration: 30 hours
What Students Learn: This module of six study units offers the trainee arithmetic and basic mathematics, metric measurement, and calculator fundamentals. The Metric System is an introductory unit which includes metric conversions. Problem exercises and examples in this module are presented in on-the-job scenarios with applications drawn from the industrial context.
Components: Addition and Subtraction (186008); Multiplication and Division (186009); Fractions, Percents, Proportions, and Angles (186010); Metric System (186011); Formulas (186012); Introduction to Algebra (186013);
Special Notes: This updated course replaces lessons contained within Practical Math and Measurements, Block X01. Each study unit contains a progress examination.

#### Addition and Subtraction

Course #: 186008
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Define the terms: whole number, numeral, digit, decimal, place value, addend, sum, minuend, subtrahend, and difference.
• Explain the significance of the digit zero in a number.
• Differentiate between concrete and abstract numbers.
• Properly prepare numbers for addition and subtraction.
• Perform addition and subtraction on numbers.
• How to check your answers to both addition and subtraction problems.
• How to use a calculator to add and subtract numbers.

#### Multiplication and Division

Course #: 186009
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Define the terms: factor, multiplicand, multiplier, partial product, dividend, divisor, quotient, and remainder.
• Recognize the various signs used for multiplication and division.
• Properly prepare numbers for multiplication and division.
• Perform multiplication and division on whole numbers and decimals.
• How to check your answers to both multiplication and division problems.
• How to find the average of a group of numbers.
• How to use a calculator to multiply and divide numbers.

• #### Fractions, Percents, Proportions, and Angles

Course #: 186010
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Define the terms: fraction, proper fraction, improper fraction, lowest common denominator, percent, ratio, and proportion.
• How to add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions and decimals.
• How to change fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions.
• Solve problems involving percent.
• How to use a protractor to measure angles.
• Lay out templates for checking angles.
• How to use a calculator to solve percent problems and to convert fractions to decimals.

• #### Metric System

Course #: 186011
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Name the base units most commonly used in the metric system.
• Identify metric prefixes and their values.
• Apply conversion factors to increase or decrease metric base units.
• Estimate lengths in metric units.
• Express temperature in degrees Celsius.
• Define the terms: mass, density, force, torque, and pressure. Identify the metric units used to measure each one.
• How to use a calculator to convert one metric unit to another.

• #### Formulas

Course #: 186012
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Explain the use of letters in formulas.
• Prepare and use formulas to solve problems.
• The use of formulas to calculate the perimeter of a triangle and rectangle, distance, area of a triangle, rectangle, and circle, volume of a pyramid, current in a circuit, and volume of a sphere.
• How to use a calculator to find square root and solve formulas.
• Transform and solve an equation.
• Perform basic arithmetic operations with signed terms.
• Substitute given numerical values for letters in a formula and find the unknown quantity.

Special Notes: This updated course replaces 2468.

• #### Introduction to Algebra

Course #: 186013
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Define the terms: term, constant, coefficient, exponent, monomial, trinomial, and polynomial.
• Identify and combine like terms in an expression.
• Multiply and divide terms containing exponents.
• Remove parentheses from an expression and simplify the expression.
• Perform basic arithmetic operations with signed terms.

• #### Practical Measurements

Course #: Block X22
Duration: 25 hours
What Students Learn: The five lessons in this block present the trainee with a broad overview of measurements found in an industrial setting. In addition to the basic measurements of length, temperature, energy, force, and power, the trainee will learn how materials are measured and handled in bulk quantities. Fluid measurements include the measuring of fluid flow, fluid pressure, and fluid level. All lessons include the metric conversions in addition to the English units.
Components: Temperature Measurement (186023); Linear and Distance Measurement (186021); Bulk Measurement (186022); Energy, Force, and Power (186024); Fluid Measurement (186025);
Special Notes: This updated course replaces the X0105 to X0109 lessons found in Practical Math and Measurements, Block X01. Each study unit contains a progress examination.

#### Linear and Distance Measurement

Course #: 186021
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Recognize the difference between English and metric units of length.
• Find the perimeter of rectangular, square, or triangular areas or objects, such as rooms or machine bases, after measuring the sides.
• Calculate the circumference of circular objects like pipes of tanks after measuring the diameter.
• Measure lengths with the aid of rigid and flexible rules, thickness gauges and screw pitch gauges.
• Read a typical vernier scale and micrometer to take precise measurements.

• #### Bulk Measurement

Course #: 186022
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Measure an angle by degrees.
• Find the areas of rectangles, triangles, and circles.
• Find the volumes of prisms, cylinders, and cones.
• Find the weight of material stored in a container.
• Determine the amount of material that can be stored or handled.
• Discuss the types and uses of conveyors and weighing systems.

• #### Temperature Measurement

Course #: 186023
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Change temperature units from one system to another.
• Discuss the use of the various types of thermometers.
• Select the type of thermometer to be used at certain temperatures.

• #### Energy, Force, and Power

Course #: 186024
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Distinguish between the concepts of energy, force, and power.
• Explain what the term "work" means, and how it is measured.
• Know by sight the basic machines, lever, inclined plane, wedge, wheel and axle, and screw.
• Solve simple problems that involve levers, mechanical advantage, and machine efficiency.
• List the forms of energy that have important industrial applications, and the instruments used for measuring energy.

• #### Fluid Measurement

Course #: 186025
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Understand the properties of fluids.
• Determine the density, specific gravity, and viscosity of fluids.
• Express pressure in three different units.
• Measure the pressure of fluids using manometers and Bourdon tubs pressure gages.
• Measure the flow rate of fluids using different types of flowmeters.

• #### Introduction to Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry

Course #: Block X02
Duration: 72 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn: This twelve lesson block is for those trainees requiring more advanced math subjects. The subject of algebra is covered in detail and the subjects of geometry and trigonometry are introduced in a practical manner.
Because math skills vary widely, a placement test is available to determine the trainee's specific knowledge of the various areas. Test X0250: Introduction to Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry is divided into four sections: lessons X0201 through X0204; lessons X0205 through X0208; lessons X0209 through X0210; and lessons X0211 and X0212.
Components: Algebra: Monomials and Polynomials (X0201); Algebra: Factoring (X0202); Algebra: Addition and Subtraction of Fractions (X0203); Algebra: Multiplication and Division of Fractions (X0204); Algebra: Linear Equations (X0205); Algebra: Simultaneous Linear Equations (X0206); Algebra: Determinants (X0207); Algebra: Quadratic Equations (X0208); Algebra: Exponents (X0209); Algebra: Radicals and Imaginary Numbers (X0210); Applied Geometry (X0211); Practical Trigonometry (X0212); Progress Examination Booklet (X0220); Progress Examination (X0221); Progress Examination (X0222); Progress Examination (X0223); Progress Examination (X0224); Placement Test: Introduction to Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry (X0250);

#### Algebra: Monomials and Polynomials

Course #: X0201
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Remove grouping symbols from algebraic expressions, dividing by a monomial when indicated.
• Multiply binomials by monomials, trinomials, and other inomials.
• Calculate the square root and the third power of given monomials.
• Find special products involving binomials.
• Divide one polynomial by another polynomial of lower degree.

• #### Algebra: Factoring

Course #: X0202
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Find the prime factors of certain binomials and trinomials.
• Factor a given trinomial.
• Use the Factor Theorem to factor a given polynomial.
• Use factoring to find the roots of an equation.
• Divide one polynomial by another polynomial of lower degree.
• Find the lowest common multiple of several polynomials.

• #### Algebra: Addition and Subtraction of Fractions

Course #: X0203
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Recognize equivalent algebraic fractions.
• Perform additions and subtractions involving algebraic fractions.
• Reduce an algebraic fraction to its lowest terms.
• Find the least common denominator for a group of algebraic fractions.

• #### Algebra: Multiplication and Division of Fractions

Course #: X0204
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Perform multiplications and divisions involving algebraic fractions.
• Reduce an algebraic fraction to its lowest terms.
• Find the least common denominator for a group of algebraic fractions.
• Solve equations involving fractions or decimals.
• Simplify complex fractions.

• #### Algebra: Linear Equations

Course #: X0205
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Recognize equations expressing mixture problems and other word problems.
• Solve number problems, digit problems, and age problems.
• Recognize the graph of a linear equation, given the graph or a set of points.

• #### Algebra: Simultaneous Linear Equations

Course #: X0206
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Recognize essential steps in the solving of simultaneous linear equations by addition, subtraction, comparison, graphing, and clearing of fractions.
• Identify the classification of a system of equations.
• Solve a system of linear equations.
• Solve interest problems, lever problems, and work-sharing problems.

• #### Algebra: Determinants

Course #: X0207
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Evaluate a second-order determinant and expand a third-order determinant.
• Recognize the standard form to be used in solving simultaneous equations by determinants.
• Recognize determinants that represent the solutions of simultaneous equations in two or three unknowns.

• #### Algebra: Quadratic Equations

Course #: X0208
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Recognize the graphical solution of two equations.
• Solve and recognize steps in the solution of systems of quadratic equations and systems of a quadratic and linear equation.
• Solve a fourth-degree polynomial equation in quadratic form.
• Use the quadratic formula to solve a quadratic equation, calculate the discriminant of a quadratic equation, and point out what can be known from a given discriminant.
• Write a quadratic equation which has given roots.
• Solve word problems involving quadratic equations.

• #### Algebra: Exponents

Course #: X0209
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Demonstrate an understanding of the meaning of a fractional exponent.
• Apply the rules for positive and negative exponents in multiplication, division, and raising to powers.
• Use radicals to convert fractional exponents and use fractional exponents to convert radicals.
• Write a given number in standard form.

• #### Algebra: Radicals and Imaginary Numbers

Course #: X0210
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Simplify several radicals and then add like terms.
• Rationalize the denominator of a fraction and eliminate an imaginary number from the denominator of a fraction.
• Solve an equation containing several square roots.
• Multiply, divide, and raise to powers terms containing radicals.

• #### Applied Geometry

Course #: X0211
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Recognize characteristics of angles and closed plane figures.
• Distinguish between common geometric solids.
• Apply the Pythagorean theorem.
• Calculate perimeters and areas of a polygon, circle, and ellipse.
• Apply the formula for area and volume of geometric solids.

• #### Practical Trigonometry

Course #: X0212
Duration: 6 hours
Course Prerequisites: Basic Industrial Math (Block X21); Practical Measurements (Block X22);
What Students Learn:

• Define trigonometric functions.
• Use trigonometric tables and apply interpolation.
• Solve right triangles.
• Apply the laws of sines and cosines in solving oblique triangles.

• #### Trades Safety: Getting Started

Course #: 186001
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
A thorough knowledge of safe practices is an important part of working in any industrial setting. Every industrial worker should be familiar with accident prevention techniques, fire safety mehods, and the use of personal protective equipment.
Injuries in the workplace cost many millions of dollars in medical costs, lost wages, and production losses each year. Many injuries can be prevented by understanding how accidents and injuries can occur. This study unit is designed to help trainees understand why safety is so important, and to present students with information about safety that goes beyond common sense.

Objectives
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

• Name the agencies that make and enforce safety regulations and explain an employees responsibilities under those regulations.
• List the physical hazards associated with chemicals and describe how to avoid those hazards.
• Name several electrical shock hazards and the techniques used to prevent shocks.
• List the steps in a lock-out / tag-out procedure.
• Explain the importance of machine guarding and name several types of machine guards.
• Name the four classes of fire and how to extinguish each of them.
• Describe the proper technique used to lift a heavy load.
• Explain how to avoid hand injuries when using hand and power tools.
• List some of the hazards involved in welding and hot cutting operations and how to prevent them.
• Explain how job analysis and the science of ergonomics are used to improve the workplace.
• Explain the importance of personal protective equipment and name several types of PPE.

Contents
Introduction; Safety Regulations; Key safety Issues; Protecting Yourself and Your Co-workers.

• #### Working Safely with Chemicals

Course #: 186002
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
This study unit deals with the safe use of chemicals in the workplace. The two primary causes of chemical accidents are the misuse of chemicals and the improper disposal of chemical wastes. Understanding the hazards that chemicals can create is the first step in protecting people from harm.
The main goal of this study unit is to provide students with sound, practical knowledge about chemical use and disposal, both in the workplace and at home. You will learn how to recognize common chemical hazards and how to deal with them. Trainees will learn how to perform a job analysis to look for potential chemical dangers in your daily taks. Finally, people will learn how to take precautions to avoid chemical accidents and make all jobs as safe as possible.

Objectives
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

• Recognize the six different ways in which a chemical can cause physical injury.
• Name the routes or paths of entry by which chemicals can enter the body.
• Describe the types of injuries caused by chemicals.
• Identify potential chemical dangers in your workplace.
• Describe how to identify, store and label hazardous chemicals.
• List several methods used to prevent chemical accidents.
• Explain why proper training is important to chemical handling.
• Describe the types of personal protective equipment used and worn when handling chemicals.
• Explain the role of governmental agencies in enforcing chemical regulations.

Contents
Introduction: Living with Chemicals; Chemical Injuries; Accident Prevention; Handling Hazardous Wastes.

• #### Fire Safety

Course #: 186003
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
Fires are the most destructive and expensive of all accidents. However, fires can be effectvely prevented through the combined use of technology and common sense. By understanding how fires get started and how to extinguish them, students will have much of the knowledge needed to protect people from fire. This study unit will introduce trainees to the information you need to practice fire safety and prevention in the workplace.

Objectives
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

• Describe the types of property losses and injuries associated with fires.
• Explain how fires are ignited.
• Identify the four classes of fire.
• Describe the primary fire hazards found in the workplace.
• Explain the various ways in which fires can be prevented.
• Describe the operation of several different fixed fire protection systems.
• Identify the proper type of portable fire extinguisher to use on a fire.
• Describe the operation of several different types of fire extinguishers.
• Explain how to defend yourself and others in a fire situation.
• Describe how to safely evacuate a burning building.

Contents
Introduction to Fire; Fire Hazards in the Workplace; Preventing Fires; Fixed Fire Protection Equipment; Portable Fire Extinguishers; Fire Protection Techniques.

• #### Material Handling Safety

Course #: 186006
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn: Preview
This study unit introduces the safe techniques and work practices commonly used when handling manufacturing and industrial materials. Trainees will learn the procedures necessary to avoid physical injury to yourself and those working with you, for both manual handling methods and mechanical handling methods. You will also learn procedures that minimize damage to the materials being moved and to facility property. Knowing the proper procedures will also give you the insight to decide when mechanical handling is necessary, or preferred, over traditional physical handling.

Objectives
When a student completes this study unit, he and she will be able to:

• Recognize the hazards associated with handling materials.
• Know the types of injuries that can be caused by these hazards.
• Understand how to effectively use safe material handling practices.
• Know how to avoid physical injury when handling loads.
• Know and follow the rules for safe operation of powered industrial material handling equipment.
• Understand and respect the limits and restrictions placed on powered material handling mechanisms.

Contents
Introduction to Material Handling; Housekeeping and Storage; Material Handling Equipment; Hoists and Cranes.

• #### Working Safely with Electricity

Course #: 4400
Duration: 10 hours
What Students Learn: Electrician Categories and Classifications; Electrical Safety Standards and Codes, including OSHA, NEC, and NESC; Materials Standards; Listing and Labeling by Testing Laboratories; Electric Shock; Safety Precautions; First Aid for Electric Shock; Protective Clothing.

#### Working Safely with Electricity

Course #: VB06XX
Duration: 1.12 hours
What Students Learn: Electricity is unforgiving! It is important that every student, trainee and mechanic know the dangers and precautions before they step onto the shop floor. This most important program contains the vital information employees working with electricity should know before they get started. Dramatic interviews with survivors of electrical accidents, combined with a crisp pace and vivid images, will keep students glued to their seats.
Components: The Shock Emergency (VB0602); Emergency Response (VB0604); Electricity Can Kill (VB0601); The Importance of Grounding (VB0603);
Special Notes: This video series is available in a Spanish version.

#### Quality Concepts: Tools and Applications

Course #: 186036
Duration: 5 hours
What Students Learn:

• Describe how job roles change as a company evolves in its quality consciousness.
• Explain several ways in which you can support TQM.
• Identify approaches, practices and skills associated with positive organizational change.
• Differentiate between the "change process" at the company level and the manufacturing processes that require improvement.
• Describe major causes of process variation and give examples of how they may affect you in your job.
• Explain why and how the reduction of variability is a key factor in process improvement.
• Describe why and how quality and process improvement depend on data-driven decision making.
• Identify seven quality tools and explain their uses.

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